Blessed John Henry Cardinal Newman (1801 – 1890) was an Oxford academic and priest in the Church of England who co-founded the Oxford Movement. Following the publication of his Essay on the Development of Christian Doctrine in 1845, Newman converted to Catholicism and was made a cardinal by Pope Leo XIII in 1879. His major writings include his autobiography Apologia Pro Vita Sua (1865–66), and his philosophical treatise An Essay in Aid of a Grammar of Assent (1870). Newman was the founding president of University College, Dublin, and his inaugural lectures on education were collected in The Idea of a University (1853). Newman was a widely respected and influential Victorian churchman who also wrote novels, poetry, and composed popular hymns. He was beatified by Pope Benedict XVI on September 19, 2010.