Pope Gregory XII

Golden-Rule Norman Rockwell

Personal Identity is Not Chosen

Brexit and the Trump movement, with their emphasis on the decisive importance of national identity, show that explicit identity politics has spread to all points of the political compass. That's not surprising, since identity is radically contested today. The questions relate not only to who gets placed where, or the common concerns of this group or [...]

Benedict’s Decision in the Light of Eternity

What God knows is not necessarily what God wills.  Each pope is guaranteed the protection of the Holy Spirit from fallible definitions of faith and morals, but to suppose that each pope is there because God wants him there, including the unworthy successors of Peter, comes close to the unforgivable blasphemy against the Third Person [...]

Pope Benedict’s Resignation in Historical Context

In shocking news that quickly demonstrated the ongoing relevance of medieval historians, Pope Benedict announced that he will lay down his governance of the Church of Rome at the end of this month.  Such an event has not happened for nearly 600 years when his predecessor, Gregory XII, sacrificed himself in 1415 to bring an [...]

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